Type of Flower
Ferraria is a genus in the Iridaceae family also knows ( Starfish Iris,Sea spider iris). It is found in the dry parts of central and southwestern Africa with the center along the southern African western coast. There are around 14 species, most growing in winter rainfall, summer dry climates with the exception of one species, Ferraria glutinosa which grows in southern tropical Africa with a hot wet summer and a dry cool winter.
This is a genus with long-lived corms that accumulate from year to year in a chain with a usually branched flowering stem and flowers that are symmetric, either lasting for a couple of days or very short lived. The flowers look like mutant starfish. They are generally dull colored (cream, buff or brown) and often bizarrely marked with spots and blotches and sometimes crisped or fringed. Many of them have an unpleasant odor and are pollinated by flies, but a few species are pollinated by wasps. This genus is most closely related to Moraea.
The genus for Ferraria flowers was named in honor of Giovanni Battista Ferrari, who first described a Ferraria in 1633. Ferrarias were brought to Europe before the middle of the 17th century and cultivated there as items of interest, in part due to their unusual flowers. Growing in spring from underground corms, flowers are primarily grown for their unique and frilly, speckled flowers, which usually range in shades of brown to yellow, violet and blue or combinations of all of these colors and even green.
Flowers last a single day, but established plants will usually produce a large number, flowers also have an unusual shape. They are relatively small and many of the flowers emit an unpleasant aroma, reminiscent of rotten meat. However, there are some flowers that are sweetly scented such as F. brevifolia, F. kamiesbergensis and F. schaeferi.
Ferraria flowers make lovely additions to the garden, adding a unique charm of their own. The star-like flowers, which resemble a starfish, have also prompted the nickname of starfish lily. Some of the most commonly grown species in this group include:
F. crispa – This spider flower reaches about 12-18 inches and has unusually green-fringed flowers with purple blotched interiors.
F. uncinata – Growing 10-14 inches this species has flowers that are dark purple with a yellow-brown fringe or cream with a green-brown fringe.
F. densepunctulata – This one is a rare species with flowers having a cream background and alternating petals of red-violet and violet with a light yellow-brown outer fringe.
F. ferrariola – This type of Ferraria is quite exceptional. With pale green flowers and yellow- crisped edges, this smaller beauty reaches heights between 6-10 inches.
F. divaricata – Another shorty, this species has variable colored flowers. You may find some in pale green with cream centers and bluish-purple marks, and others having a light yellow background with light purple centers fringed with brown.
Ferraria flowers are easy bulbs to grow. These plants prefer to be located in sun or semi-shade in loamy, well-drained soil just beneath the surface (1-2 inches). Plants in too much shade will fail to bloom and will eventually die out. The rarer species are generally best grown in pots or containers.
The care of ferraria corms don’t require too much either. Once their spring flowering has completed, the foliage will slowly begin to fade and the spider flowers go dormant in summer. During this time, all watering should be limited.
Bring any container-grown plants indoors for over wintering and provide a generous amount of mulch for winter protection to those growing outdoors.
Established ferraria flower plants will produce large clumps each year. These can be easily divided in the spring when overcrowding becomes a problem or if additional plants are desired elsewhere in the garden.